HSB4U Challenge and Change in Society Grade 12

Course Title: Challenge and Change in Society, Grade 12, University Preparation
Course Name: Challenge and Change in Society
Course Code: HSB4U
Grade: 12
Course Type: University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Social Sciences and Humanities, English, or Canadian and World Studies.
Curriculum Policy Document: Social Sciences and Humanities, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to 12, 2013 (Revised)
Course Developer: Toronto eSchool
Department: Social Sciences and Humanities
Department Head: Erin Weir, B.A.(Hon), B.Ed., OCT
Developed Date: 2013
Most Recent Revised Date: 2020

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HSB4U course focuses on the use of social science theories, perspectives, and methodologies to investigate and explain shifts in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour and their impact on society. Students will critically analyse how and why cultural, social, and behavioural patterns change over time. They will explore the ideas of social theorists and use those ideas to analyse causes of and responses to challenges such as technological change, deviance, and global inequalities. Students will explore ways in which social science research methods can be used to study social change.


Unit Unit Titles and Descriptions Length
1 Unit 1 - Foundations
This unit sets the framework for all the units as students will examine anthropology, psychology, and sociology to understand these disciplines. Students are introduced to the purposes, major concepts, terminology, research methods, and practitioners of the three social science disciplines. They will explore research questions and methodological approaches.
20 hours
2 Unit 2 - Social Change
Students define and categorize factors that contribute to a state of mental, emotional and physical well-being. They examine birth patterns, aging, health care provision, impediments to accessing health care, and the social and cultural implications of each of these topics. Students will also have time to work on their culminating
25 hours
3 Unit 3 - Social Patterns and Trends
Students examine the nature of Canadian society from the perspective of the three social science disciplines. They examine positive social change and the role of various social institutions and policies in promoting or impeding change. The issues of gender, racism and discrimination are analysed as barriers to full participation in Canadian society. Students research patterns of hate crimes and develop materials (e.g., video, pamphlet, school presentation) to educate and to promote positive social interaction as one unit culminating activity. The social science report process continues with students conducting primary
25 hours
4 Unit 4 - Global Social Challenges
Students examine and debate different views of progress. They examine the causes and effects of contemporary positive global change in technology, medicine, social justice and human rights issues, ecological knowledge and resource management, legal and political developments, and the role Canadians have played in promoting or impeding change in these areas. The impediments to positive global change are then examined through case studies. Students independently research and report on one change that focuses on gender equality from a global perspective. At this stage students should have a rough draft complete of their final report. Financial literacy will be a component of this course as students will be guided on their budgeting and financing in relation to changing global landscape.
25 hours
5 Unit 5 - Course Culminating and/or Exam
Using ethical guidelines, appropriate methodology, and primary and secondary sources, students develop a position on a social issue of importance to anthropology, psychology, or sociology and, using a research design appropriate to the issue and discipline, carry out a research project in at least one of the disciplines.
15 hours
Total 110 hours

A1 Exploring: explore topics related to families in Canada, and formulate questions to guide their research;
A2 Investigating: create research plans, and locate and select information relevant to their chosen topics, using appropriate social science research and inquiry methods;
A3 Processing Information: assess, record, analyse, and synthesize information gathered through research and inquiry;
A4 Communicating and Reflecting: communicate the results of their research and inquiry clearly and effectively, and reflect on and evaluate their research, inquiry, and communication skills.
B. Social Change
B1 Foundations for the Study of Social Change: demonstrate an understanding of the major theories, perspectives, and methodologies related to social change;
B2 Causes and Effects of Social Change: demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of social change;
B3 Technological Change:demonstrate an understanding of patterns and effects of technological change from a social science perspective.
C. Social Patterns and Trends
C1 Demographics:demonstrate an understanding of the importance of demographics as a tool for studying social patterns and trends, both nationally and globally;
C2 Forces That Shape Social Trends: demonstrate an understanding of how forces influence and shape social patterns and trends;
C3 Social Deviance:demonstrate an understanding of social science theories about social deviance, and of how various responses to deviance affect individuals and society.
D. Global Social Challenges
D1 Global Inequalities: demonstrate an understanding of how various social structures and conditions support or limit global inequalities;
D2 Globalization: assess the impact of globalization on individuals and groups;
D3 Exploitation: analyse the impact of unfair or unjust exploitation of people or resources, locally and globally.

As in a conventional classroom, instructors employ a range of strategies for teaching a course:

  • Direct Instruction/Note Taking
  • Reading
  • Case Studies
  • Structured Discussion
  • Brainstorming
  • Role-Play
  • Group Work/Pair Work
  • Independent Study/Research

In addition, teachers and students have at their disposal a number of tools that are unique to electronic learning environments:

  • Electronic simulation activities
  • Video presentations
  • Discussion boards and email
  • Assessments with real-time feedback
  • Interactive activities that engage both the student and teacher in the subject
  • Peer review and assessment
  • Internet Instructional Videos

All course material is online, no textbook is required. Assignments are submitted electronically. Tests are completed online at a time convenient for the student, and the course ends in a final exam which the student writes under the supervision of a proctor approved by Toronto eSchool at a predetermined time and place. The final mark and report card are then forwarded to the student's home school.

Students must achieve the Ministry of Education learning expectations of a course and complete 110 hours of planned learning activities, both online and offline, in order to earn a course credit.

The chart below indicates some general examples of online and offline activities.

Online Learning Activities Offline Learning Activities
Watching instructional videos Reading materials for course
Watching additional resources videos Studying instructional material
Completing online timed assignments Practicing skills
Contributing to Forums Completing assignments
Uploading video presentations Completing essays
Communicating with instructor Preparing presentations
Participating in live conferences Reviewing for tests and exams
Practicing through online quizzes Researching topics on internet
Reviewing peer submissions
Assessing peer presentations
Completing online timed exam

Students are expected to access and participate actively in course work and course forums on a regular and frequent basis. This interaction with other students is a major component of this course and there are minimum requirements for student communication and contribution.

TorontoeSchool's approach to assessment and evaluation is based on the Ontario Ministry of Education's Growing Success 2010 document. Assessment is the process of gathering information that accurately reflects how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a subject or course.

The primary purpose of assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment for this purpose is seen as both "assessment for learning" and "assessment as learning". As part of assessment for learning, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback and coaching for improvement. Teachers engage in assessment as learning by helping all students develop their capacity to be independent, autonomous learners who are able to set individual goals, monitor their own progress, determine next steps, and reflect on their thinking and learning. Toronto eSchool teachers use evidence from a variety of sources in their assessment. These include formal and informal observations, discussions, conversations, questioning, assignments, projects, portfolios, self-assessments, self-reflections, essays, and tests.

Assessment occurs concurrently and seamlessly with instruction. Our courses contain multiple opportunities for students to obtain information about their progress and achievement, and to receive feedback that will help them improve their learning. Students can monitor their own success through the tracking of learning goals and success criteria throughout all courses.

Summative "assessment of learning" activities occur at or near the end of periods of learning. Evidence of student achievement for evaluation is also collected over time from different sources, such as discussions, conversations and observation of the development of the student's learning. Using multiple sources of evidence increases the reliability and validity of this evaluation. The evaluations are expressed as a percentage based upon the levels of achievement.

Assessment as Learning Assessment for Learning Assessment of Learning
During each unit, students are asked to keep a log of new terminology they learn throughout the lessons and are asked to define that terminology. This will be a record of what students have learned, and provides a reference point for questions to ask the instructor, and a study guide when it comes to the final examination Each unit will have a collection of texts that students are required to read, and each lesson will end with a set of questions to determine whether the student has a grasp on the knowledge needed to succeed in the course. Two formal written assignments are distributed at various points in the course to assess the student's learning on many of the topics studied during lessons. This assignment allows the instructor to see and assess the student's ability to make further connections across texts.
Revising and editing written work is a large aspect of the course, which allows students to correct thinking, expand ideas, and change topics if necessary. Collaborative work between students when it comes to editing and revising is encouraged and suggested as a necessary component to the course. Peer reviews and instructor consultations are a useful tool for students to assess their own ability to communicate thoughts and ideas, allowing them clarity on which aspects of the course they need to put more focus in. A mid-term assignment will be distributed to students to assess their Knowledge and Understanding, as well as a summative assignment, which will both act as a way for students to demonstrate their ability to understand and make connections across several different texts.
Students will be utilizing the discussion forums to discuss work and ideas throughout the course, as well as having access to the instructor's email address for any further concerns. Discussion forums are not only used for discussion, but also as a way to check in on a student's understanding, and to provide a gateway to resources that will aid in their learning and help them to be successful in the course. The final examination will be the final assessment of the course, and will allow students to demonstrate their understanding of the covered content in the course.

HSB4U Unit 3: Social Trends Assignment Rubric

Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
Understanding of your topic

Demonstrates a great understanding of the theme and purpose Demonstrates good understanding of the theme and purpose Demonstrates some understanding of the theme and purpose Demonstrates little understanding of the theme and purpose K
Knowledge of the resources

Resources have great relevance Resources have good relevance Resources have some relevance Resources have little relevance K
Understanding course material and purpose

Strong relationship with course material Good relationship with course material Some relationship with course material Little relationship with course material K

Thesis represents a unique and well-structured argument Thesis expresses a good argument Thesis expresses sufficient purpose Thesis expresses little purpose T
Evidence used to support arguments

Several graphics are unattractive AND detract from the content of the presentation. Evidence is of good quality Evidence adequately supports arguments Evidence is presented poorly T
Research and Ideas

Exceptional idea developed Good idea development Adequate idea development Some idea development T
Grammar, punctuation, and spelling

Essay is well-written, with almost no grammar, punctuation, or spelling errors Essayhas a few grammatical errors Essay has some grammatical errors Essay is full of grammatical errors C
Sentence structuring

Sentences are professionally structured and well-written Sentences are adequately structured Sentences are somewhat structured Sentences are poorly structured C
Paragraph structuring

Paragraphs are well-structured, and they effectively represent your arguments Paragraphs are adequately structured Paragraphs relate to their arguments Poor paragraph structuring C
Language Conventions

The essay flows exceptionally and it never loses the reader The essay flows cohesively The essay is understandable, but its language conventions need improvement It is difficult to understand the essay due to poor language conventions A
APA and References
- APA title page included
- Proper header
- Properly formatted APA citations
- Properly formatted APA Reference list

Exceptional use of APA formatting
More than 5 sources referenced
Sources are all relevant, used within essay, current, and academic
Proper use of in text citations
Properly formatted reference list
Proper use of APA formatting with few errors
5 sources referenced
Good use of citations
Properly formatted reference list with few errors
Some use of APA formatting
Less than 5 sources referenced
Some citations
Reference list has some errors
Minimal use of APA formatting
Sources are irrelevant, not used in essay
Few citations and improper formatting of reference list

Growing Success articulates the vision the Ministry has for the purpose and structure of assessment and evaluation techniques. There are seven fundamental principles that ensure best practices and procedures of assessment and evaluation by Torontoeschool teachers. Assessment and evaluations:

  1. are fair, transparent, and equitable for all students;
  2. support all students, including those with special education needs, those who are learning the language of instruction (English or French), and those who are First Nation, Metis, or Inuit;
  3. are carefully planned to relate to the curriculum expectations and learning goals and, as much as possible, to the interests, learning styles and preferences, needs, and experiences of all students;
  4. are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year or course and at other appropriate points throughout the school year or course;
  5. are ongoing, varied in nature, and administered over a period of time to provide multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
  6. provide ongoing descriptive feedback that is clear, specific, meaningful, and timely to support improved learning and achievement
  7. develop students self-assessment skills to enable them to assess their own learning, set specific goals, and plan next steps for their learning.

The evaluation for this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning. The percentage grade represents the quality of the student's overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student's grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

  • 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student's most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
  • . 30% of the grade will be based on a final assessment, which may be a final exam, a final project, or a combination of both an exam and a project.

Final Grade Weight Breakdown

40% Course Assignments
10% Mid Term Assignment
20% Discussion Forums
30% Final Exam


The general balance of weighting of the categories of the achievement chart throughout the course is

Knowledge and Understanding 25%
Thinking 25%
Communication 25%
Application 25%

Two official report cards are issued - midterm and final. Each report card will focus on two distinct but related aspects of student achievement. First, the achievement of curriculum expectations is reported as a percentage grade. Additionally, the course median is reported as a percentage. The teacher will also provide written comments concerning the student's strengths, areas for improvement and next steps. Second, the learning skills are reported as a letter grade, representing one of four levels of accomplishment. The report cards contain separate sections for the reporting of these two aspects. The report card also indicates whether an OSSD credit has been earned.

The purpose of the achievement chart is to:

  1. provide a common framework that encompasses all curriculum expectations for all courses;
  2. guide the development of high-quality assessment tasks and tools;
  3. help teachers plan instruction for learning;
  4. assist teachers in providing meaningful feedback to students;
  5. provide various categories/criteria with which to assess and evaluate students' learning.

The achievement chart provides a reference point for all assessment practice and a framework within which achievement will be assessed and evaluated.

  1. The chart is organized into four broad criteria; Knowledge / Understanding, Thinking / Investigation, Communication, and Application.
  2. The achievement chart describes the levels of achievement of the curriculum expectations within each subset of criteria.
  3. The "descriptor" indicates the characteristic of performance, with respect to a particular criterion, on which assessment or evaluation is focused.
  4. A specific "qualifier" is used to define each of the four levels of achievement. It is used along with a descriptor to produce a description of performance at a particular level.
  5. The following table provides a summary description of achievement in each percentage grade range and corresponding level of achievement:

A Summary Description of Achievement in Each Percentage Grade Range
and Corresponding Level of Achievement
Percentage Grade
Summary Description
80-100% Level 4 A very high to outstanding level of achievement. Achievement is above the provincial standard.
70-79% Level 3 A high level of achievement. Achievement is at the provincial standard.
60-69% Level 2 A moderate level of achievement. Achievement is below, but approaching, the provincial standard.
50-59% Level 1 A passable level of achievement. Achievement is below the provincial standard.
below 50% Level R Insufficient achievement of curriculum expectations. A credit will not be granted.

Knowledge and Understanding - Subject-specific content acquired in each course (knowledge), and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding)
  The student:
Knowledge of content
(e.g., facts, terms, definitions, safe practices and procedures, use of technologies)
demonstrates limited knowledge of content demonstrates some knowledge of content demonstrates considerable knowledge of content demonstrates thorough knowledge of content
Understanding of content
(e.g., concepts, theories, ideas, processes; relationship between theory and action)
demonstrates limited understanding of content demonstrates some understanding of content demonstrates considerable understanding of content demonstrates thorough and insightful understanding of content
Thinking - The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes
  The student:
Use of planning skills
(e.g., formulating questions, identifying problems, gen ¬ erating ideas, gathering and organizing information, focusing research, selecting strategies)
uses planning skills with limited effectiveness uses planning skills with moderate effectiveness uses planning skills with considerable effectiveness uses planning skills with a high degree of effectiveness
Use of processing skills
(e.g., analysing, detecting point of view and bias, interpreting, evaluating, synthesizing, forming conclusions)
uses processing skills with limited effectiveness uses processing skills with some effectiveness uses processing skills with considerable effectiveness uses processing skills with a high degree of effectiveness
Use of critical/creative thinking processes
(e.g., goal setting, decision making, problem solving, invention, critiquing, reviewing)
uses critical / creative thinking processes with limited effectiveness uses critical / creative thinking processes with some effectiveness uses critical / creative thinking processes with considerable effectiveness uses critical / creative thinking processes with a high degree of effectiveness
Communication - The conveying of meaning through various forms
  The student:
Organization and expression of ideas, information, and understandings in oral, visual, and/or written forms (e.g., oral: role plays, interviews, presentations, debates; visual: demonstrations, multimedia presentations, posters, graphic organizers; written: pamphlets, journals, reports, web pages) organizes and expresses ideas, information, and understandings with limited effectiveness organizes and expresses ideas, information, and understandings with some effectiveness organizes and expresses ideas, information, and understandings with considerable effectiveness organizes and expresses ideas, information, and understandings with a high degree of effectiveness
Communication for different audiences (e.g., peers, adults, younger children, community members) and purposes (e.g., to inform, instruct, persuade) in oral, visual, and/or written forms communicates for different audiences and purposes with limited effectiveness communicates for different audiences and purposes with some effectiveness communicates for different audiences and purposes with considerable effectiveness communicates for different audiences and purposes with a high degree of effectiveness
Use of conventions (e.g., research conventions such as surveys, documentation conventions, communication conventions),vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline in oral, visual, and/or written forms uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with limited effectiveness uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with some effectiveness uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with considerable effectiveness uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with a high degree of effectiveness
Application - The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts
  The student:
Application of knowledge and skills (e.g., concepts, procedures, processes, methodologies, technologies) in familiar contexts applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with limited effectiveness applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with some effectiveness applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with considerable effectiveness applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with a high degree of effectiveness
Transfer of knowledge and skills to new contexts (e.g., other subjects; experiences in the family, community, society; using theory to help understand personal experiences) transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with limited effectiveness transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with some effectiveness transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with considerable effectiveness transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with a high degree of effectiveness
Making connections within and between various contexts (e.g., past, present, future; environmental, personal, social, religious, cultural, socio-economic contexts) makes connections within and between various contexts with limited effectiveness makes connections within and between various contexts with some effectiveness makes connections within and between various contexts with considerable effectiveness makes connections within and between various contexts with a high degree of effectiveness
Note:A student whose achievement is below 50% at the end of a course will not obtain a credit for the course.

  • Access to HSB4U online course of study
  • Access to a scanner or digital camera
  • Access to a word-processing software
  • Access to Google and various online resources
  • Access to Youtube

Reference Texts

Note: This course is entirely online and does not require or rely on any textbook. Should students wish to seek additional information we would recommend this texts:
De Coeur, T., Rawes, C., & Warecki, P. (2011). The Challenge and Change of Society. McGraw Hill Ryerson.

Teachers who are planning a program in this subject will make an effort to take into account considerations for program planning that align with the Ontario Ministry of Education policy and initiatives in a number of important areas

  1. Education for students with special education needs
  2. Environmental education
  3. Equity and inclusive education
  4. Financial literacy education
  5. Ontario First Nations, Metis, and Inuit education
  6. Role of information and communications technology
  7. English language learners
  8. Career education
  9. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences
  10. Health and safety

1. Education for Students with Special Education Needs:

Torontoeschool is committed to ensuring that all students are provided with the learning opportunities and supports they require to gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence they need to succeed in a rapidly changing society. The context of special education and the provision of special education programs and services for exceptional students in Ontario are constantly evolving. Provisions included in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code have driven some of these changes. Others have resulted from the evolution and sharing of best practices related to the teaching and assessment of students with special educational needs.

The provision of special education programs and services for students at Torontoeschool rests within a legal framework The Education Act and the regulations related to it set out the legal responsibilities pertaining to special education. They provide comprehensive procedures for the identification of exceptional pupils, for the placement of those pupils in educational settings where the special education programs and services appropriate to their needs can be delivered, and for the review of the identification of exceptional pupils and their placement.

Teachers will take into account the needs of exceptional students as set out in the students' Individual Education Plan. The online courses offer a vast array of opportunities for students with special educations needs to acquire the knowledge and skills required for our evolving society. Students who use alternative techniques for communication may find a venue to use these special skills in these courses. There are a number of technical and learning aids that can assist in meeting the needs of exceptional students as set out in their Individual Education Plan. In the process of taking their online course, students may use a personal amplification system, tela-typewriter (via Bell relay service), an oral or a sign-language interpreter, a scribe, specialized computer programs, time extensions, ability to change font size, oral readers, etc.

2. Environmental Education:

Environmental education teaches students about how the planet's physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future. Good curriculum design allows environmental issues and topics to be woven in and out of the online course content. This ensures that the student will have opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices needed to become an environmentally literate citizen. The online course should provide opportunities for each student to address environmental issues in their home, in their local community, or even at the global level.

3. Equity and Inclusive Education:

Torontoeschool is taking important steps to reduce discrimination and embrace diversity in our online school in order to improve overall student achievement and reduce achievement gaps due to discrimination. The Ontario Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy was launched in April 2009 and states that all members of the Torontoeschool community are to be treated with respect and dignity. This strategy is helping Torontoeschool educators better identify and remove discriminatory biases and systemic barriers to student achievement. These barriers related to racism, sexism, homophobia and other forms of discrimination may prevent some students from reaching their full potential. The strategy supports the Ministry's key education priorities of high student achievement, reduced gaps in student achievement and increased accountability and public confidence in Ontario's schools. Students, regardless of their background or personal circumstances, must be given every opportunity to reach their full potential. Research shows that when students feel welcomed and accepted in their school, they are more likely to succeed academically. Torontoeschool desires to create a culture of high expectations where factors such as race, age, gender, sexual orientation and socio-economic status do not prevent students from achieving ambitious outcomes.

4. Financial Literacy Education:

Financial literacy may be defined as having the knowledge and skills needed to make responsible economic and financial decisions with competence and confidence. Since making financial decisions has become an increasingly complex task in the modern world, students need to have knowledge in various areas and a wide range of skills in order to make informed decisions about financial matters. Students need to be aware of risks that accompany various financial choices. They need to develop an understanding of world economic forces as well as ways in which they themselves can respond to those influences and make informed choices. Torontoeschool considers it essential that financial literacy be considered an important attribute of a well-educated population. In addition to acquiring knowledge in such specific areas as saving, spending, borrowing, and investing, students need to develop skills in problem solving, inquiry, decision making, critical thinking, and critical literacy related to financial and other issues. The goal is to help students acquire the knowledge and skills that will enable them to understand and respond to complex issues regarding their own personal finances and the finances of their families, as well as to develop an understanding of local and global effects of world economic forces and the social, environmental, and ethical implications of their own choices as consumers. The Ministry of Education and Torontoeschool are working to embed financial literacy expectations and opportunities in all courses as appropriate, as part of the ongoing curriculum review process.

5. Ontario First Nations, Metis, and Inuit Education:

First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students in Ontario will need to have the knowledge, skills, and confidence they need to successfully complete their elementary and secondary education in order to pursue postsecondary education or training and/or to enter the workforce. They will need to have the traditional and contemporary knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be socially contributive, politically active, and economically prosperous citizens of the world. All students in Ontario will need to have knowledge and appreciation of contemporary and traditional First Nation, Metis, and Inuit traditions, cultures, and perspectives. Torontoeschool and the Ministry of Education are committed to First Nation, Metis, and Inuit student success. Torontoeschool teachers are committed to (1) developing strategies that will increase the capacity of the education system to respond to the learning and cultural needs of First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students; (2) providing quality programs, services, and resources to help create learning opportunities for First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students that support improved academic achievement and identity building; (3) providing a curriculum that facilitates learning about contemporary and traditional First Nation, Metis, and Inuit cultures, histories, and perspectives among all students where possible; and (4) developing and implementing strategies that facilitate increased participation by First Nation, Metis, and Inuit parents, students, communities, and organizations in working to support the academic success of the student.

6. The Role of Information and Communications Technology in the Curriculum.

Information literacy is the ability to access, select, gather, critically evaluate, and create information. Communication literacy refers to the ability to communicate information and to use the information obtained to solve problems and make decisions. Information and communications technologies are utilized by all Torontoeschool students when the situation is appropriate within their online course. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any other course or any business environment.

7. English Language Learners:

This Torontoeschool online course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. This online course must be flexible in order to accommodate the needs of students who require instruction in English as a second language or English literacy development. The Torontoeschool teacher considers it to be their responsibility to help students develop their ability to use the English language properly. Appropriate modifications to teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in this course may be made in order to help students gain proficiency in English, since students taking English as a second language at the secondary level have limited time in which to develop this proficiency. This online course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. Well written content will aid ESL students in mastering not only the content of this course, but as well, the English language and all of its idiosyncrasies. Torontoeschool has created course content to enrich the student's learning experience. In addition, since many occupations in Canada require employees with capabilities in the English language, many students will learn English language skills which can contribute to their success in the larger world.

8. Career Education:

As the online student progresses through their online course, their teacher is available to help the student prepare for employment in a huge number of diverse areas. With the help of their teacher, students will learn to set and achieve goals and will gain experience in making meaningful decisions concerning their career choices. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this online course are essential for a wide range of careers. Throughout their secondary school education, students will learn about the educational and career opportunities that are available to them; explore and evaluate a variety of those opportunities; relate what they learn in their courses to potential careers in a variety of fields; and learn to make appropriate educational and career choices.

9. Cooperative Education and Other Workplace Experiences:

By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Torontoeschool teachers will try to help students link to Ministry programs to ensure that students have information concerning programs and opportunities.

10. Health and Safety:

The study of healthy relationships occurs throughout the social sciences and humanities curriculum. For example, the Dynamics of Human Relationships course provides opportunities for students to explore the topic of healthy relationships and to develop strong social skills and communication strategies. This course also explores the barriers to forming strong, healthy relationships and provides students with important information about how to recognize and respond to unhealthy relationships. The equity studies courses provide opportunities for students to develop their understanding of the ways in which power dynamics are an integral component of all relationships. These courses also allow students to explore the ways in which core aspects of identity - including sex, gender and gender identity, and ethnocultural and religious background - contribute to power dynamics that can facilitate or hinder the formation of healthy relationships.
The knowledge, skills, and habits of mind that are addressed in all courses in social sciences and humanities encourage open-mindedness as well as respect for and deep understanding of self and others, providing a foundation for forming and maintaining healthy relationships.

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